1853 – 1914 (Life Span)
A French police officer, Bertillon applied the technique of anthropometry, the study of measurements to the human body, to law enforcement. Bertillon created an identification system based on physical measurements - the first scientific system used by police to identify criminals. Bertillon also invented the standardized police mugshot in 1840. The poses used in the Bertillon mugshots: side profile and frontal, facing the camera became readily recognizable.